Art & History, Science, Nature and Tech

The Clifton suspension bridge: designed by a woman, built by Brunel

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Sam has worked as a forensic scientist as well as for the British government, and has degrees in both archaeology and osteoarchaeology. She has 2 children, is passionate about science, reading, history and music, and loves dyeing her hair bright colours!

Sam blogs about all kinds of science at www.samanthagouldson.com.
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One of the best known landmarks in Bristol, UK, the Clifton suspension bridge first opened in 1864. It was built by the famous British engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel, but it has recently become public knowledge that it was designed by a woman. Our science editor Sam Gouldson explains who she was and why her work isn’t more widely known.

Who really designed the bridge?

The Clifton suspension bridge was designed by a woman called Sarah Guppy. She was born Sarah Beach in 1770, but when she married her husband Samuel Guppy she took his name. She was one of the great British inventors of her time and the bridge isn’t the only thing she came up with.

What else did she design?

The invention that earned Sarah the most money was her device to prevent barnacles forming on the hulls of ships. Without barnacles the ships would be able to cut better through water and travel more quickly, and the Royal Navy paid her £40,000 for it. That may not sound like much for such a valuable design, but today it would be more than £2.3 million. Her other inventions included a kettle that not only boiled water for tea but could cook an egg and keep toast warm, a candle holder that could keep candles alight for longer and a way of treating boats so that they were more watertight. She also came up with the idea of planting willow and poplar trees on the embankments of new railways, to hold the earth together and prevent landslides.

Why isn’t she more famous?

Sarah lived during the Georgian and Victorian eras. In those times married women weren’t allowed to own property in their own name, and intellectual property such as Sarah’s inventions were no different. Her husband had to file the patents on her behalf, as the property of the Guppy family. The patent for her method of piling bridge foundations in order to create a new kind of bridge was filed in 1811, but she refused to charge others to use the idea because she felt it was for the benefit of the public. Thomas Telford, a civil engineer, used her design to build the Menai bridge in 1826, and when the competition to design the Clifton bridge was announced Sarah gave her work to Brunel. When she wrote to him to suggest the use of willow and poplar trees to reinforce railway embankments, she explained that she didn’t want the credit for her idea because she felt that women “must not be boastful”.

 

Featured image: Sage Solar/Flikr

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Science, Nature and Tech

A Day in the Life of… a Structural Engineer

You might be starting to think about which subjects you want to study at school, perhaps you have even had a talk about careers.
One thing that is quite tricky to assess is what a job is REALLY like. Some jobs are quite easy to imagine, such as working as a teacher, because we see the work that teachers do every day. Some jobs are a bit of a mystery. What does an engineer actually DO? And what do you have to study, to become one?
Today we are introducing a new series of articles, which will show you the typical working life of people in many different professions. If you know someone who has an interesting or unusual career, ask them if they would agree to a short interview with us to show kids a day in their life.

We were lucky enough to interview Tasha Scott, who was happy to explain to us her studies and career as a Structural Engineer.

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Events

High Performance Festival – It was EPIC! – Written By You

Written By You

These posts were written by our young readers. If you'd like to contribute to Jump! Mag, read our guidelines here, and get in touch!

http://jumpmag.co.uk/contribute/

We sent 9 year old Emilia to the London Science Museum to investigate the High Performance Festival, and have a chat to some of the guests. 

 

I think the High Performance Festival at the Science Museum was EPIC! Because it shows how clever women can be.

 

 

Electric Car by Newstead Wood School, England

 

First we went to see the electric car and we met up with 16 year old Stephanie who drives and built it with her friends at Newstead Wood School in Orpington in Kent. She told us about the car.

 

“It took 2 years to build. To practise driving we use the tennis court and just take the nets down. The top speed is 28mph but we try to keep it at 25mph because it’s an endurance race and it’s about how far not how fast.”

 

I got to go in the car and it is such a wierd position. It’s made of steal and foam, it is lime green and quite a simple shape. There is a steel seat that you almost have to lie down in and there is a battery pocket at the back. The girls have raced it at the Top Gear track and Goodwood.

 

 

CUER Solar Car

 

 

 

Soon we went to see the women who built the CUER Solar car. I met Lucy and Alice who are at Cambridge University. They told us alot about the car.

 

 

“The car took around 9 months to build and another 6 months for modify because it wasn’t right. It has a battery that can keep it going for about 300km but even in England where there’s not much sun it will go slowly. In 2007 we drove from Lands end to John O Groats.”

 

It doesn’t look like a normal car, it is shaped as a horizontal oval with all the solar panels on top. There is a little rider’s seat right at the top which is very tiny and can only fit one person in. Lucy said

 

“I think in the future cars might have solar panels but I don’t think they will be used to make the car go, they will be used for window wipers and so on.”

 

Lucy and Alice will be going to Australia in October to do a race from Darwin to Adelaide. They will be going through the outback and they will have little camps in the outback to stop at. They will drive from 8 to 5 every day and wherever they stop will be where they have to start the next day. It is 3000km and the car has a top speed of 140kmph and they want to finish in 4 days.

 

Major Steph McKenzie – UK Army Air Corps 

 

 

 

 

 

 

We went to listen to Major Steph McKenzie. Steph is in charge of the army’s Apache helicopters. She also takes care of them by fixing them. We also saw Squadron Leader Ruth Shackleton who is in charge of the Red Arrows. We asked them some questions.

Steph told us:

 

“A good engineer needs integrity, you need to be able to own up when you’ve done something wrong. You need to be technically minded and be quite inquisitive and always wanting to learn because technology moves so quickly these days. I don’t think engineering is pushed that much at school to girls so that’s why there are not a lot of girl engineers here.”                           

 

 

 

Ruth Shackleton, Team Leader Red Arrows 

 

 

 

Later we met Ruth Shackleton who told us a lot about the Red Arrows. She has been in the RAF for 13 years.

 

“I can’t fly a plane so I just tell the Red Arrows what to do. I enjoy flying helicopters, they are very fun and I have flown with the Red Arrows and that was amazing.”

 

I think Ruth is a really interesting person – she has done lots of different jobs in the RAF in lots of different countries and her job is exciting but sometimes can be life-risking.

 

“When I was in Iraq in 2003 we under went a scud attack and a big alarm went off and we had to put on a chemical suit. In Afghanistan, a rocket came in and landed about 50m from the tent I was living in.”

 

Today we have learnt that women can do so many things that involve engineering. Before I thought engineering was just fixing cars and things but this has made it seem much more detailed and interesting. 

 

For more information on the electric car project, visit: newstead-greenpower.webs.com/

 

For more information on the solcar car project, visit: www.cuer.co.uk

 

 

I am 9 years old and in Year 4. I like art and also cats, flamenco dancing and lots of books. In english, I am learning about writing articles.

 

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Events

High Performance – Women in Engineering

Written By You

These posts were written by our young readers. If you'd like to contribute to Jump! Mag, read our guidelines here, and get in touch!

http://jumpmag.co.uk/contribute/

Jump! Mag sent 13 year old Katherine
to the London Science Museum
to report on inspiring women in engineering,
and their fascinating projects

 

 

During my day at the Science museum, I spoke to a range of inspirational girls and women who have ignored the fact there are few women in their jobs and worked in engineering. They ranged from 16 years old and working in a club held at school to Audi’s chief engineer for endurance racing, and all had very interesting things to tell. Not one of them let people’s preconceptions stand in the way of their dreams.

To begin with, I spoke to Viridity GRT, so named because they design and drive electric cars – viridity means green. They are a group of 14-17 year olds, who all go to Newstead Wood School and study engineering, although those I spoke to (Ugo, Seray, Anna and Asiyah) were 16 and 17. They drive an electric car run by a battery powered motor, with no steering wheel. Instead, they control the whole car with levers and buttons, while practically lying down. As a result, it is very uncomfortable if you are quite tall!

The car itself runs off a battery similar, but not identical to, a standard road car battery. While actually driving you lie flat, with your feet right at the front of the car and your head back fairly low down. This is a very aerodynamic design, but it does mean that if you are too short you slide backwards and forwards, and if you are too tall you have no room to lie flat, so you bang your knees on the bodywork. The car can reach speeds of up to 30mph, although that depends on the slope of the road and how much battery remains – the first driver in a race gets to go much faster than the others!

Viridity GRT

Races are usually 45 minutes per person, and at a variety of locations such as Goodwood Motor Circuit and Bedford Autodrome.  One major problem is that these places are not covered, and the car does not have a roof, so driving in the rain is unpleasant, to say the least. In fact, one memorable occasion, although not necessarily a pleasant one, was racing at Dunsfold Park (better known as the Top Gear test track!) in torrential rain. This led to the then black paint washing off and landing on their helmet, so they couldn’t see, and the microphone stopped working, so they also couldn’t communicate. The race had to be cut short, but by the end they were still sitting in a puddle of cold water mixed with black paint. As a result, and also so the car was easier to see, it had to be painted green.

One surprising thing is while Ugo, Anna and Seray all want to do engineering, Asiayh wants to go into medicine. Despite this, they still want more girls to do engineering and science, as they feel this is not common enough. “In fact, I didn’t really know what engineering was until I started this.” Ugo mentioned. “It would be better if girls could learn about it earlier; we all started quite late.”

 

 

Cambridge University Eco Racing

 

 

CUER, or Cambridge University Eco Racing, were also there. Lucy Osbourne, Sarah Barrington and Emily Walker are 3 girls at Cambridge who work on the car, and showed me it and the model for the next one. Their cars are solar powered, but are still very strong – they are capable of racing across Australia. They are also built from scratch by the team, so large amounts of funding are required – most of these come from sponsors.

The current car has a top speed of 60mph, and has raced across Australia twice, covering over 6000km in its lifetime. It’s not even as if they have several cars that are fresh for a race – it’s a matter of one car having to survive all that. It is mostly safe to drive though, so long as they make the right choices as to which parts to use. One potential type of tyre has a habit of exploding, so they don’t plan to use that. The new car, however, will have a top speed of 85mph and will be made of a paper mesh layered between two thin sheets of carbon fibre, which makes it extremely strong and lightweight. They tried to break a piece, and ended up breaking the table instead. They have actually discovered that it can be broken, if you use 4 times the weight of one person.  It ‘only’ weighs 120kg – about the weight of four 10 year olds.

Cambridge University Eco RacingThe team is a lot bigger that the three I spoke to, but they were very helpful in answering questions. They don’t have any particular heroes, mainly because there are so few famous women scientists. Lucy explained: “That’s one of the reasons we’re here – to help inspire young people interested in science and engineering.” 

They have always been interested in science, but limited opportunities – they enjoy it because it explains how the world works, and of course you don’t actually need to be good at something to enjoy it.

They really value the team atmosphere – when asked about special memories, Lucy said “There was one night when we were making the mould for the chassis in the middle of the night because we were running out of time. That was a real team atmosphere.” Sarah added “Its things like that that really pull the team together.”

 

 

High Performance Festival Later on in the day Leena and Teena Gade gave a talk about their careers. Teena went first, explaining about her job as a tester for Skoda, as well as previous jobs, such as when she worked for JCB on their DieselMax – a car that set the land speed record. After that she worked as an aerodynamicist for Williams F1. Then went to rally for Subaru. Then worked on Kris Meeke’s Mini rally car. Finally she started working for Skoda. She also holds a research post at Coventry University – particularly impressive as she has to work abroad all the time for Skoda. Apparently she doesn’t particularly like being one of the only women, as sometimes people treat her differently, but other than that it doesn’t bother her. “The only barriers are ones you create yourself” she said.

However, she also described the things you need to think about when designing a rally car. Apparently rocks are one of the most important things. They can do a lot of damage to a car, and while you could just make it really big and really strong, that would just be a tank, and you would not win. You also need the best tyres for grip, and 4 wheel drive. And dampers. And it needs to be serviceable when in a hurry. The list is endless. You also need to be prepared for odd events, such as being able to work out why the engine suddenly stops. It also involves something called the ‘signal to noise ratio’ – working out what feedback is useful, and what is totally irrelevant. Her advice if you want to achieve something: ask questions, learn from mistakes and apply that in the future, go for all opportunities, no matter how small they seem, and work hard.

Leena Gade

Leena explained about her job as Audi’s chief engineer for their endurance team. This means she is in charge of 8 mechanics, 1 assistant engineer, 1 data engineer 2 engine engineers, 1 gear box engineer, a few background engineers and the 3 drivers. She recently was in charge of the team that won Audi their 10th victory at Le Mans, a 24 hour endurance race famous for its length and size.

She became interested in engineering when she was 12, but then became interested in motorsport when she was 14. She reckons being girls gave her and her sister an advantage, because people are more likely to remember them because they are unusual, but also a disadvantage, because people’s natural prejudice means they need to be better than the men in order to be seen as equal.  Apart from winning, she particularly enjoys meeting so many different people from different places who all have the same aim: to win. She says that the best way to get noticed is to do any work for anyone related to what you want to do whenever possible, be prepared to take any job and never give up.

 

All these people are working in what they want to do, and are all successful despite any gender bias in their business. They all say similar things: don’t give up.

 

 

Katherine is 13 and loves playing music. She plays the violin, the bassoon and the piano. She also loves horse riding and computers.  Her favourite subjects at school are Maths and Science.

She visited London Science Museum to interview the guests of the High Performance Festival, celebrating scientists and engineers who make our world faster, brighter and better.

Jump! Mag would like to thank the organisers of the High Performance Festival for welcoming our young reporters and allowing them to interview these inspiring women and girls.

 

 

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Events

Supercars and Science – London Science Museum High Performance Festival

Written By You

These posts were written by our young readers. If you'd like to contribute to Jump! Mag, read our guidelines here, and get in touch!

http://jumpmag.co.uk/contribute/

Do you like fast cars? Have you ever seen a racecar powered only by the sun?

 

Believe it or not, solar-powered racecars do exist, and they can be quite zippy – getting up to 99 mph running on nothing but sunlight! Cambridge University Eco Racing, or CUER, are a team of young engineers who build their own solar-powered cars. Then they take them to Australia to race in the World Solar Challenge – a 3000 km cross-country rally thought the Australian outback, which is held every two years. The photo above shows Endeavour – the car that the team raced in the 2009 and 2011 Challenges.

 

For a team used to rainy Cambridge, it much have been a big change driving across the heat of the Aussie desert. But believe it or not, it rained on the race! 

”The hardest thing was having the weather turn on us. We were driving well. Then, when we reached South Australia, it started raining!” says team member Lucy Fielding. That must have been frustrating – but the race definitely had its high points, too: “The race is a real adventure – we are pioneers”, says Lucy. “Crowds gathered along the highways in Darwin to wave us off, then there was the desolation and emptiness of the outback. And finally the euphoria of arriving in Port Augusta and the realisation that we had crossed a continent – there was a real feeling of pride.”

 

This year, CUER reckon they stand a good chance of winning the race with their latest model, codenamed Daphne. They’re still building it, but when the car is complete in time to race in October this year, it will look something like this:

 

 london science museum high performance festival

 

That’s not like any other car I’ve ever seen! Its aerodynamic shape was inspired by nature.  And the really clever thing about it is that the solar panels on the back can move around to catch the sun.

 

And amazingly, the car uses only the same amount of power as your hairdryer!

 

So could CUER win the Challenge for Britain this year? “Our mission is to finish number 1 on the podium in 2013”, says Keno, the team manager. But it’s not just about winning – team member Lucy Osborne says it’s an amazing feeling knowing that their project gets people interested in engineering, and thinking about the future of sustainable technology. 

 

If you want to meet some of the CUER team, you can find them at the Science Museum this weekend from March 8-10. You can see Endeavor, and even sit in it! And talk to the team about how you could be an engineer one day, too.

 

And if you love all things fast – cars, planes, helicopters, even atom-smashing particle accelerators like the one at CERN – there’s loads of other stuff to see and people to meet at the museum this weekend.

You could meet Leena Gade – she is Chief Engineer at Audi Motorsport, and in 2011 she became the first female engineer to win the famous Le Mans race. Leena won again in 2012, this time with a hybrid electric car called the R18 E-tron Quattro. That was the first time a hybrid had won a motor race – it’s safe to say Leena has shown just what hybrid cars can do.

 

london science museum high performance festival

 Leena Gade

 

Leena is from a real engineering family – her younger sister Teena is a rally engineer at Skoda Motorsport. It just goes to show engineering isn’t just for the boys!

Thereare loads of women in engineering these days – in all kinds of places. In fact, one of the Army’s most senior engineers is Major Steph McKenzie. Steph is the commander of 73 Aviation Company. She is in charge of ninety military engineers and technicians who work to keep the Army’s aircraft safe and in good condition.

 

 london science museum high performance festival

 Steph McKenzie

 

These amazing women, and loads of other cool scientists and engineers will be at the Science Museum for our High Performance festival. If you’re around, come along and say hello to them – and maybe find out how you can follow in their footsteps!  

 

Webpage with full line-up 

 

 

 

Corrinne Burns and Ling Lee work at London’s Science Museum,
where they develop exhibitions about modern science, medicine and engineering.

 

 

 

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