Science, Nature and Tech

What is the Orionid Meteor Shower?

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Sam has worked as a forensic scientist as well as for the British government, and has degrees in both archaeology and osteoarchaeology. She has 2 children, is passionate about science, reading, history and music, and loves dyeing her hair bright colours!

Sam blogs about all kinds of science at www.samanthagouldson.com.
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This October Earth will be passing through the tail of Halley’s comet, which will mean a shower of meteors flashing across the night sky. Our science editor Sam Gouldson explains.

What is Halley’s Comet?

A comet is a lump of rocky particles, ice and dust all bound together like a dirty snowball. When the comet nears a star, its surface transforms from a solid to a gas. The star’s light shines through these gases and makes them visible to observers as a fuzzy cloud around the comet’s centre, and a tail streaming out behind.

Observations of Halley’s comet have been recorded since 240 BCE, but it was Edmond Halley (pronounced HAL-ee or HAY-lee) who first realised that the comet was returning to Earth periodically and must, therefore, be orbiting the same star that we do.

Until Halley’s calculations in 1705 it was believed that comets merely passed through our solar system; using his friend Isaac Newton’s new laws of gravity and motion he worked out that the comet appeared every 75-76 years. It still does – it was last visible from Earth in 1986 and will next be seen in 2061.

What does the Meteor Shower have to do with the Comet?

Although we won’t see Halley’s comet again for 45 years, its presence is still felt. Every October Earth passes through debris left behind when the comet’s surface melts; as the dust and particles come into contact with our atmosphere at speeds of up to 145,000 kilometres per hour they burn up. This is known as a meteor shower or shooting stars.

Why are They Called the Orionids?

Meteor showers are usually named after the constellation of stars that they seem to come from, although of course, they originate much closer to our planet. For example, the Leonids are seen close to the constellation Leo, while the Geminids are seen near the constellation of Gemini. The Orionids (pronounced o-RYE-on-ids), as you may have guessed, are seen close to the constellation of Orion.

The constellation Orion, named after the hunter from Greek mythology. The three stars in the centre are known as Orion's belt. (Image: NASA).

The constellation Orion, named after the hunter from Greek mythology. The three stars in the centre are known as Orion’s belt. (Image: NASA).

How Can We See Them?

This year the Orionids are visible from the 4th October to the 14th November, but they’re at their brightest and most frequent on the 21st and 22nd October between midnight and dawn. You’ll need to be outside so wrap up warmly, and find a spot that doesn’t have much light pollution – a hilltop or the middle of a park are usually good spots. Look towards the southeastern part of the sky where Orion is, and you could see up to 20 meteors per hour.

 

Still not sure what to look for? Check out these videos:

This one has time stamps that you can click.

 

Sam has also written about the differences between asteroids, comets and meteors

Featured image: Orionid meteor shower by John Flannery

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Events

Meeting Major Tim Peake

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Sam

Sam has worked as a forensic scientist as well as for the British government, and has degrees in both archaeology and osteoarchaeology. She has 2 children, is passionate about science, reading, history and music, and loves dyeing her hair bright colours!

Sam blogs about all kinds of science at www.samanthagouldson.com.
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On Friday the 6th November, journalists from all around the world gathered at London’s Science Museum to hear one man speak. He’s Major Tim Peake, and in just a few weeks he will become the first British astronaut to live on the International Space Station (ISS). Our science editor, Sam Gouldson, was there.

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Science, Nature and Tech

Science News For Kids – Water Found on Mars

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Sam

Sam has worked as a forensic scientist as well as for the British government, and has degrees in both archaeology and osteoarchaeology. She has 2 children, is passionate about science, reading, history and music, and loves dyeing her hair bright colours!

Sam blogs about all kinds of science at www.samanthagouldson.com.
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Until 3 billion years ago, Mars was a wet planet much like Earth. It had land, an extensive atmosphere and an ocean that covered two thirds of the northern hemisphere as well as smaller bodies of water. But significant climate change caused the water and atmosphere to boil away, leaving Mars a dry and arid planet. Or so we thought… then came the news from Nasa – Water found on Mars! 

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Events

The Discovery of Beagle 2

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Sam

Sam has worked as a forensic scientist as well as for the British government, and has degrees in both archaeology and osteoarchaeology. She has 2 children, is passionate about science, reading, history and music, and loves dyeing her hair bright colours!

Sam blogs about all kinds of science at www.samanthagouldson.com.
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There’s been a lot of excitement in the scientific community recently, with the announcement of the discovery of Beagle 2. But what is it and how did it get lost? (And no, it has nothing to do with dogs!)

 

What is Beagle 2?

 

Beagle 2 is a landing spacecraft just 2 metres across that was built by a team of British scientists, led by Professor Colin Pillinger. It was designed to examine the surface of Mars, measuring the different amounts of carbon and other chemicals in an attempt to determine whether life could have existed on the planet at some point in time.

 

Why is it called Beagle 2?

 

The spacecraft was named after HMS Beagle, the ship that carried Charles Darwin on his voyage around Earth in the 1830s. This voyage led to a much greater understanding of life on our planet; Professor Pillinger and his team hoped that Beagle 2 would do the same for our knowledge of any life on Mars.

 

How was Beagle 2 lost?

On the 19th December 2003 Beagle 2 was launched from the Mars Express orbiter, and on the 25th December it descended towards the surface of Mars. Once it had landed safely it was programmed to deploy its solar panels and contact Mars Express. Unfortunately it was never heard from again, and was declared lost on the 6th February 2004.

 

How was it found?

A NASA spacecraft, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, is currently orbiting the red planet and photographing its surface. After searching through billions of pixels in large quantities of images, the Beagle team believe that they have found their craft.

Although more focused photographs need to be taken in order to determine exactly how Beagle 2 is lying, it looks as though the lander made it to the surface safely but only deployed 2 or maybe 3 of its 4 solar panels. The radio antennae with which it should have contacted Mars Express is tucked underneath the fourth panel, and so was never able to function. The Beagle 2 team are overjoyed to have found their lost lander, although Professor Colin Pillinger died in May 2014 without ever knowing what had happened to his craft.

 

Now what?

 

Hopefully future images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will show even more clearly how Beagle 2 is positioned. The lander was partly battery powered and would have been able to record images and data as it descended through the atmosphere, but this information is locked inside its memory and inaccessible. Andrew Coates, who was the lead investigator on Beagle 2’s stereo camera system, has said that it’s likely that the images and data exist and joked that “All we need is an astronaut and a USB stick to go and get them!”.

 

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Science, Nature and Tech

Is The Great Wall of China Visible from Space?

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Sam has worked as a forensic scientist as well as for the British government, and has degrees in both archaeology and osteoarchaeology. She has 2 children, is passionate about science, reading, history and music, and loves dyeing her hair bright colours!

Sam blogs about all kinds of science at www.samanthagouldson.com.
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The idea that the Great Wall of China can be seen from space has been around since at least 1938 and is still popular today. It certainly seems plausible that such a large, linear structure would stand out from the surrounding landscape, but it’s actually not true.

Alan Bean, the fourth man to walk on the moon, said in 1969

“The only thing you can see from the moon is a beautiful sphere, mostly white, some blue and patches of yellow, and every once in a while some green vegetation. No man-made object is visible at this scale.”

But if you can’t see the Wall from the moon, how about somewhere closer to Earth? The International Space Station (ISS) maintains a low earth orbit of between 330-435 km above our planet’s surface.

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